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the author's footnotes for Californian Ideology

[1] Naum Gabo and Anton Pevsner, 'The Realistic Manifesto, 1920', in John E. Bowlt (ed.), Russian Art of the Avant-Garde: Theory and Criticism, Thames & Hudson, London 1976, p. 214.

[2] For over 25 years, experts have been predicting the imminent arrival of the information age, see Alain Touraine, La Soci»t» post-industrielle, äditions Denoâl, Paris 1969; Zbigniew Brzezinski, Between Two Ages: America's role in the Technetronic Era, Viking Press, New York 1970; Daniel Bell, The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society, Basic Books, New York 1973; Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, Pan, London 1980; Simon Nora and Alain Minc, The Computerisation of Society, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts 1980; and Ithiel de Sola Pool, Technologies of Freedom, Belknap Press, Harvard 1983.

[3] See Martin Bangemann, Europe and the Global Information Society, Brussels, 1994; and the programme and abstracts of the Warwick University's Virtual Futures Conference.

[4] See Mitch Kapor, 'Where is the Digital Highway Really Heading?' in Wired, July/August 1993.

[5] See Mike Davis, City of Quartz, Verso, London 1990; Richard Walker, 'California Rages Against the Dying of the Light', New Left Review, January-February 1995; and the records of Ice-T, Snoop Dog, Dr Dre, Ice Cube, NWA and many other West Coast rappers.

[6] See George Katsiaficas, The Imagination of the New Left: a Global Analysis of 1968, South End Press, Boston 1987, p. 124.

[7] Jerry Rubin, 'An Emergency Letter to my Brothers and Sisters in the Movement' in Peter Stansill and David Zane Mairowitz (eds.), BAMN: Outlaw Manifestos and Ephemera 1965- 70, Penguin, London 1971, p. 244.

[8] For the key role played by popular culture in the self-identity of the American New Left, see George Katsiaficas, The Imagination of the New Left: a Global Analysis of 1968, South End Press, Boston 1987; and Charles Reich, The Greening of America, Random House, New York 1970. For a description of the lives of white-collar workers in '50s America, see William Whyte, The Organization Man, Simon & Schuster, New York 1956.

[9] In a best-selling novel of the mid-'70s, the northern half of the West Coast has seceded from the rest of the USA to form a hippie utopia, see Ernest Callenbach, Ecotopia, Bantam, New York 1975. This idealisation of Californian community life can also be found in John Brunner, The Shockwave Rider, Methuen, London 1975; and even in later works, such as Kim Stanley Robinson, Pacific Edge, Grafton, London 1990.

[10] For an analysis of attempts to create direct democracy through media technologies, see Richard Barbrook, Media Freedom: the contradictions of communications in the age of modernity, Pluto, London 1995.

[11] Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1964, pp. 255-6. Also see Marshall McLuhan and Quentin Fiore, The Medium is the Massage, Penguin, London 1967; and Gerald Emanuel Stern (ed.), McLuhan: Hot & Cool, Penguin, London 1968.

[12] See John Downing, Radical Media, South End Press, Boston 1984.

[13] Arthur Kroker and Michael A. Weinstein, Data Trash: the theory of the virtual class, New World Perspectives, Montreal 1994, p. 15. This analysis follows that of those futurologists who thought that 'knowledge workers' were the embryo of a new ruling class, see Daniel Bell, The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society, Basic Books, New York 1973; and economists who believe that 'symbolic analysts' will become the dominant section of the workforce under globalised capitalism, see Robert Reich, The Work of Nations: a blueprint for the future, Simon & Schuster, London 1991. In contrast, back in the '60s, some New Left theorists believed that these scientific- technical workers were leading the struggle for social liberation through factory occupations and demands for self-management, see Serge Mallet, The New Working Class, Spokesman Books, Nottingham 1975.

[14] See Dennis Hayes, Behind the Silicon Curtain, Free Association Books, London 1989, for a description of contract work in Silicon Valley; and, for a fictional treatment of the same subject, Douglas Coupland, Microserfs, Flamingo, London 1995. For more theoretical examinations of post-Fordist labour organisation, see Alain Lipietz, L'audace ou l'enlisement, äditions La D»couverte, Paris 1984 and Mirages and Miracles, Verso, London 1987; Benjamin Coriat, L'atelier et le robot, Christian Bourgois Editeur, Paris 1990; and Toni Negri, Revolution Retrieved: Selected Writings on Marx, Keynes, Capitalist Crisis & New Social Subjects 1967-83, Red Notes, London 1988.

[15] There is considerable political and semantic confusion about the meaning of 'liberalism' on both sides of the Atlantic. For instance, Americans use liberalism to describe any policies which happen to be supported by the supposedly left-of- centre Democratic party. However, as Lipset points out, this narrow sense of the word hides the almost universal acceptance in the USA of liberalism in its classical meaning. As he puts it: 'These [liberal] values were evident in the twentieth century fact that...the United States not only lacked a viable socialist party, but also has never developed a British or European-style Conservative or Tory party', see Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: a double-edged sword, W.W. Norton, New York 1996, pp. 31-2. The convergence of the New Left and New Right around the Californian Ideology, therefore, is a specific example of the wider consensus around anti-statist liberalism as a political discourse in the USA.

[16] For McLuhan's success on the corporate junket circuit, see Tom Wolfe, 'What If He Is Right?', The Pump House Gang, Bantam Books, London 1968. For the use of his ideas by conservative thinkers, see Zbigniew Brzezinski, Between Two Ages: America's role in the Technetronic Era, Viking Press, New York 1970; Daniel Bell, The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society, Basic Books, New York 1973; Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave, Pan, London 1980; and Ithiel de Sola Pool, Technologies of Freedom, Belknap Press, Harvard 1983.

[17] Heroic males are common throughout classic sci-fi novels, see D. D. Harriman in Robert Heinlein, The Man Who Sold the Moon, Signet, New York 1950; or the leading characters in Isaac Asimov, The Foundation Trilogy, Gnome Press, New York 1953, I, Robot, Panther, London 1968, and The Rest of the Robots, Panther, London 1968. Hagbard Celine - a more psychedelic version of this male archetype - is the central character in Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson, The Illuminati Trilogy, Dell, New York 1975. In the timechart of 'future history' at the front of Robert Heinlein's novel, it predicts that, after a period of social crisis caused by rapid technological advance, stability would restored in the 1980s and '90s through '...an opening of new frontiers and a return to nineteenth-century economy'!

[18] See Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: the future of work and power, Heinemann, New York 1988. Of course, this analysis is derived from Karl Marx, Grundrisse, Penguin, London 1973; and 'Results of the Immediate Process of Production' in Albert Dragstedt (ed.), Value Studies by Marx, New Park, London 1976.

[19] See Howard Rheingold, Virtual Communities, Secker & Warburg, London 1994, and his home pages.

[20] See the gushing interview with the Tofflers in Peter Schwartz, 'Shock Wave (Anti) Warrior', Wired, November 1993; and, for the magazine's characteristic ambiguity over the Speaker of the House's reactionary political programme, see the aptly named interview with Newt Gingrich in Esther Dyson, 'Friend and Foe', Wired, August 1995.

[21] The Progress and Freedom Foundation, Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age, p. 5.

[22] See Kevin Kelly, Out of Control: the New Biology of Machines, Fourth Estate, London 1994. For a critique of the book, see Richard Barbrook, Pinnochio Theory.

[23] Progress and Freedom Foundation, Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age, p. 13. Toffler and friends also proudly proclaim that: 'America...remains the land of individual freedom, and this freedom clearly extends to cyberspace', Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age, p. 6. Also see Mitch Kapor, 'Where is the Digital Highway Really Heading?' in Wired, July/August 1993.

[24] See Simon Schaffer, Babbage's Intelligence: Calculating Engines and the Factory System,

[25] See Jonathan Palfreman and Doron Swade, The Dream Machine, BBC, London 1991, pp. 32 - 36, for an account of how a lack of state intervention meant that Nazi Germany lost the opportunity to build the world's first electronic computer. In 1941 the German High Command refused further funding to Konrad Zuze, who had pioneered the use of binary code, stored programs and electronic logic gates.

[26] See Howard Rheingold, Virtual Communities, Secker & Warburg, London 1994.

[27] As President Clinton's Labor Secretary puts it: 'Recall that through the postwar era the Pentagon has quietly been in charge of helping American corporations move ahead with technologies like jet engines, airframes, transistors, integrated circuits, new materials, lasers, and optic fibres...The Pentagon and the 600 national laboratories which work with it and with the Department of Energy are the closest thing America has to Japan's well-known Ministry of International Trade and Industry.', see Robert Reich, The Work of Nations: a blueprint for the future, Simon & Schuster, London 1991, p. 159.

[28] For an account of how these cultural innovations emerged from the early acid scene, see Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Bantam Books, New York 1968. Interestingly, one of the drivers of the famous bus was Stewart Brand, who is now a leading contributor to Wired.

[29] Dennis Hayes, Behind the Silicon Curtain, Free Association Books, London 1989, pp. 21-2, points out that the American computer industry has already encouraged by the Pentagon to form cartels against foreign competition. Gates admits that he'd only recently realised the 'massive structural change' being caused by the Net, see 'The Bill Gates Column', The Guardian, 20 July 1995.

[30] See Howard Rheingold's home pages, and Mitch Kapor, 'Where is the Digital Highway Really Heading?' in Wired, July/August 1993. Despite the libertarian instincts of both these writers, their infatuation with the era of the Founding Fathers is shared by the neo-fascist Militia and Patriot movements, see Chip Berlet, Armed Militias, Right Wing Populism & Scapegoating.

[31] See the hacker heroes in William Gibson, Neuromancer, Grafton, London 1984, Count Zero, Grafton, London 1986, and Mona Lisa Overdrive, Grafton, London 1989; or in Bruce Sterling (ed.), Mirrorshades, Paladin, London 1988. A prototype of this sort of anti-hero is Deckard, the existential hunter of replicants in Ridley Scott's Bladerunner.

[32] According to Miller, Thomas Jefferson believed that black people could not be members of the Lockean social contract which bound together citizens of the American republic. 'The rights of man...while theoretically and ideally the birthright of every human being, applied in practice in the United States only to white men: the black slaves were excluded from consideration because, while admittedly human beings, they were also property, and where the rights of man conflicted with the rights of property, property took precedence', see John Miller, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery, Free Press, New York 1977, p. 13. Jefferson's opposition to slavery was at best rhetorical. In a letter of 22 April 1820, he disingenuously suggested that the best way to encourage the abolition of slavery would be to legalise the private ownership of human beings in all States of the Union and the frontier territories! He claimed that '...their diffusion over a greater surface would make them individually happier, and proportionally facilitate the accomplishment of their emancipation, by dividing the burden on a greater number of coadjutors [i.e. slave-owners]', see Merill Peterson (ed.), The Portable Thomas Jefferson, The Viking Press, New York 1975, p. 568. For a description of life on his plantation, also see Paul Wilstach, Jefferson and Monticello, William Heinemann, London 1925.

[33] For California's turn to the Right, see Richard Walker, 'California Rages Against the Dying of the Light', New Left Review, January-February 1995.

[34] See Esther Dyson, 'Friend and Foe', Wired, August 1995. Esther Dyson collaborated with the Tofflers in the writing of The Peace and Progress Foundation's Cyberspace and the American Dream, which is a futurist manifesto designed to win votes for Gingrich from members of the 'virtual class'.

[35] For the rise of the fortified suburbs, see Mike Davis, City of Quartz, Verso, London 1990 and Urban Control: the Ecology of Fear, Open Magazine, New Jersey 1992. These 'gated suburbs' provide the inspiration for the alienated background of many cyberpunk sci-fi novels, such as Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash, Roc, New York 1992.

[36] See Dennis Hayes, Behind the Silicon Curtain, Free Association Books, London 1989.

[37] See Reginald Stuart, 'High-Tech Redlining', Utne Reader, 68 March-April 1995.

[38] See Paul Wilstach, Jefferson and Monticello, William Heinemann, London 1925.

[39] See Dennis Hayes, Behind the Silicon Curtain, Free Association Books, London 1989.

[40] For an exposition of their retro-futurist programme, see the Extropian FAQ

[41] See William Gibson, Neuromancer, Grafton, London 1984, and Count Zero, Grafton, London 1986.

[42] See Isaac Asimov, I, Robot, Panther, London 1968, and The Rest of the Robots, Panther, London 1968.

[43] See William Gibson and Sandy Sandfort, 'Disneyland with the Death Penalty', Wired, September/October 1993. Since these articles are an attack on Singapore, it is ironic that the real Disneyland is in California - whose repressive penal code includes the death penalty!

[44] For the report which led to the creation of Minitel, see Simon Nora and Alain Minc, The Computerisation of Society, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts 1980. An account of the early years of Minitel can be found in Michel Marchand, The Mintel Saga: A French Success Story, Larousse, Paris 1988.

[45] According to a poll carried out during the 1995 presidential elections, 67% of the French population supported the proposition that "the state must intervene more in the economic life of our country", see 'Une majoritª de Fran*ais souhaitent un vrai "chef" pour un vrai "Etat"', Le Monde, 11 Avril 1995, p. 6.

[46] For the influence of Jacobinism on French conceptions of democratic rights, see Richard Barbrook, Media Freedom: the contradictions of communications in the age of modernity, Pluto, London 1995. Some French economists believe that the very different history of Europe has created a specific - and socially superior - model of capitalism, see Michel Albert, Capitalism v. Capitalism, Four Wall Eight Windows, New York 1993, and Philippe Delmas, Le Ma¨tre des Horloges, ≈ditions Odile Jacob, Paris 1991.

[47] As Keynes himself says: '"To dig holes in the ground", paid for out of savings, will increase, not only employment, but the real national dividend of useful goods and services.', see J.M. Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, Macmillan, London 1964, p. 220.

[48] See Keith Taylor (ed.), Henri Saint-Simon 1760-1825: Selected Writings on Science, Industry and Social Organisation, Croom Helm, London 1975; and John E. Bowlt, Russian Art of the Avant-Garde: Theory and Criticism, Thames & Hudson, London 1976.

[49] As Goldie, a jungle music-maker, puts it: "We have to take it forwards and take the drums 'n' bass and push it and push it and push it. I remember when we were saying that it couldn't be pushed anymore. It's been pushed tenfold since then...", see Tony Marcus, 'The War is Over', Mixmag, August 1995, p. 46.

[50] For information on ANTI-rom and J's Joint, see their contributions to the Hypermedia Research Centre's Web site.

[51] Henri Saint-Simon, 'Sketch of the New Political System' in Keith Taylor (ed.), Henri Saint-Simon 1760- 1825: Selected Writings on Science, Industry and Social Organisation, Croom Helm, London 1975, p. 203.

 
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